Blacks in America

First worldwar, Garvey, self-confidence, burning, UNIA, Ku Klux Klan, Referat, Hausaufgabe, Blacks in America
Themengleiche Dokumente anzeigen


Blacks in America

1) black movement in general

  • in first worldwar: 400.000 black soldiers gave their lives for US- war
  • after war, same rank in society
  • even more difficult because of economic crises and unemployment
  • Cu- Clux Clan (terrororganisation of white racists) founded in years after the abolishion of racial segregation
  • members tried to take away self- confidence (Selbstbewußtsein) of the black people, which they got in the years of the war
  • measures (Maßnahmen): burning down houses of the blacks (first year after war 11 people were burned down alive), they strangled (erdrosseln) a lot of people (example: first year after war more than 70 black people were strangled by them)
  • in this climate the Universal Negro Improvement Association UNIA was founded
  • it was founded by Marcus Garvey (1887-1940)
  • propaganded: enormous (massenhaft) emigration to Africa (but Africa was under the control of the colonialists)
  • his popularity wasn´t result of utopic "Back to Africa movement"
  • instead result of his radical condemnation (Verurteilung) of the white racism

civil- rights-movement

  • unlike first worldwar it took a few years after second worldwar to build up a big movement of blacks
  • to this point there were a few old, conservative, liberal, white- controlled blacks on court, who tried to make something better for the black people
  • 1954 apparent (scheinbar) sucess: highest court abolished racial segregation
  • said: "That must be stopped in a suitable (angemessen) speed"
  • example of "suitable speed": 9 years after this resolution there were only 8% of the black kids in the south who went on mixed schools
  • the strong opposition of white racists against this only symbolic improvement resulted in an opposition movement
  • the Montgomery Bus Boykott, the Freedom Rides, the sit-ins, the Detroit and Washington marches of 1963 and the Selma to Montomery march, this movement of black youth and black people, with increasing involvement of white youth and other whites shook the world
  • part of this movement were: Dr Martin Luther King Jr., Rosa Parks,....

2) Malcolm X

* May, 29 1925 in Omaha, Nebraska

+ February, 13 1965 in Harlem

  • mothet: Loise Little
  • father: Earl Little
  • 6 brothers and sisters
  • family early was faced with racism: after 3 months in their house in Omaha, one night house was burned down
  • family went to Lansing
  • 1939: Malcolm into home (Heim) because mother in psychiatry
  • father killed under a bus
  • Malcolm went to sister Ella (Boston), part- time- jobs
  • never enough money -> criminal, sold marihuana
  • some homosexuell contacts as an "masseur" of a man who could be his father
  • had a lot of girlfriends (most white or mulatt) who he exploited (ausnutzen) financially
  • 1946 in prison because of theft (Diebstahl), instead jugde: "sexual contacts with white women"
  • so he had to go into prison for ten years
  • march 1949: became a member of the "Nation of Islam"
  • the Islam gave Malcolm the power to create a better, a new life for himself
  • 1952: got out of prison
  • with payment chanced his name Malcolm Little in Malcolm X
  • X of "Nation of Islam": old name= name of a slave, so real name unknown
  • when first name multiplied: 2X, 3X,...
  • strict rules in NOI: no drugs, no crime, hard work with little sleep and little holidays, no dancing, no cosmetics for women, no TV( but later when Malcolm often was in TV- shows, shows like these were legal)
  • men and women weren´t allowed to swim together, sex outside marriage wasn´t legal
  • Malcolm submitted himself to these rules, because he was frightend falling back into old way of life
  • 1953: he became a preacher,first Philadelphia, then New York
  • Elijah Mohammed, leader and prophet of NOI made commercial things with the members of the Cu-Clux-Clan and the American Nazi Party
  • example: big piece of land sold only for whites -> blacks roused(empört) -> want to organize themselves -> going to become members of the NOI-> Elijah Mohammed gets the money for membership
  • he practised sex outside marriage often girls under 16, white girls
  • Malcolm got out of NOI in 1964
  • but he adviced to stay in the "Nation", perhaps he hoped that it could be reformed
  • he confessed himself to nationalism, but he interpreted it in a new way: "The aim must be the control of the policy and politicans of the black unity by the blacks and not by the whites and their marionetts."
  • following years build up his organisation "Muslim Moschee"
  • he traveled: Mekka, South-Arabia, Beirut, Egypt, Nigeria; Ghana; Algier,...
  • had a lot of sympathizers, but only a few members
  • so he build up a second, unreligious organisation: the OAAU (Organisation of Afro- American- Unity)
  • but still deficiency (Mangel) at members and money
  • again tour through Africa and the Arab
  • made some reports and discussions about racism in the USA and the United Nations
  • purpose (Zweck) of journey: propaganda of Malcolm´s ideas, wanted to earn money
  • sucess in Egypt and South- Arabia
  • on tours/ journeys: protection in advance the NOI, because lot of people wanted to kill him after he got out of NOI
  • 13.02.1965: Malcolm wanted to read out his programme of the OAAU in Harlem
  • there was ignited a smokebomb, people confused, Malcolm X was shot down
  • the murderers are still unknown, but a lot of people speculated that the murderers were members of the NOI
  • his organisations broke down after his death
  • I think the murderous attack is the best sign of the fact that he was on the right way to build up a big, strong Black- Movement
  • the dead Malcolm is much more dangerous for his enemies than the alive Malcolm, because
  • he became idol for black youth
  • they support his ideas, want to live them
  • most famous of these attempts (Versuche) is the attempt of a group of young blacks in Oakland, California: The Black Panther Party

3) Black Panther Party

  • represents the last big, radical revolt of the black masses for equality, justice and freedom
  • 1966: Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale founded the BPP
  • Seale: president
  • Newton: defence minister and leader of the party
  • the party originally was called: "Black Panther Party for Self- Defense"
  • this name describes one point, the most important point of their work: at first through streets with guns-> people confused->explain: new party wich represents the interests of the black people
  • a lot of young people were impressed by that-> became members
  • simbol panther used, because stands for power
  • was used by old political groups sucessfully
  • titel: " Selfdefence" used, because of showing the differents between the rule non-violent policy of the civilrights-movement and honouring (ehren) the civilrights- group "Deacons for Defence" (Louisiana)
  • party wanted to chance the system foundationly >AB VORLESEN<
  • there were altogether over 35 programmes, known as the survivalprogrammes "Survival up to the revolution"
  • but it´s a pitty: there were a lot of people in it who

* like to have a gun

* boast (angeben) with membership

* adore (anbeten) the women of party

  • worst: members who were criminal under name of the party
  • 1969: constitution of behavior- rules-> a lot of exclusions (Ausschlüsse) >SCHRIEB ´RUMGEBEN<
  • about 1.000 exclusions
  • the first programm: free breakfast for children from panther every day, first only near San Francisco, later all over USA
  • thausends and thausends of poor and hungry children got breakfast every day
  • the effect of programme forced the government to build up a simillar programme for public schools all over the USA
  • simultaneously FBI attacked the party, said "all communistic criminals, who want to smash the government
  • untill 1969 every office and every house of the panthers was attacked by the police or by FBI
  • there were a lot of attacks against the social programms of the party: policemen clear away the tables of breakfasts, stamped out the medicine of the free clinics or destroyed papers of the party
  • they intimidate(einschüchtern) members of the party , wanted to take the elan and the solidarity of the members and of the members of the family
  • nevertheless: BPP survived and went on with its survivalprogrammes
  • addition to other programmes: free distribution of food, free distribution of shoues, education- and schoolprogrammes, transport of seniors, free transport when you want to visit a prisoner, support for prisoners
  • hard years of fight and stay in prision made Newton and Seale tyried
  • Bobby Seale stopped with politics in 1974 and writes now books about cooking and BBQs
  • Huey P. Newton became addicted in drugs, was shot down by his dealer in 1989
  • Elaine Brown became the president of the BPP
  • was then more or less a welfare arrangement
  • the party died in the middle of the 1970th
  • the leader of the BPP New York, Safiya Bukhari- Alston, later:

" For building up and holding over a long time a strong movement, like we wanted,we should have make more necessary education- and organisationwork on the streets. We were young, ideally and very unpatient. We first should have build up a basic and organize more than only 30.000 persons. Besides there were people who wanted to profile themselfes. That destroys. There where to much drugs in the game, too."

  • in the party: troubles between leaders Cleaver and Newton (sometimes violent conflicts between panthers from east- and westcoast)

4) Situation today

  • still 3 douzen members of the BPP in us- prisons
  • nobody talks about BPP anymore, about there experiences and the activities of thausends of members
  • nobody talks about their political importance in their best years
  • What is about the ex-members, what was happen with them?
  • some of them disisullatet and stopped with poltitics
  • some still work in social terminals or work at universities or collages
  • another part is broken down with the party and lives on the street
  • left are the prisoners, mostly over 30 years in prison
  • many don´t have money for lawyers, but that´s the key for their freedom
  • mostly their are no visits from the family, because the journey to the prisons would be too expensive
  • as opposed to the conditions in other states (Italy, Germany) chances are very little that you can out of prison
  • livelong is in USA really untill the end of life
  • example: Nuh Washington
  • in prison since 29 years
  • doctors saw that he has cancer (Krebs)
  • doctors say that Nuh Washington will die in one year
  • but all attempments for a dismissial( Haftentlassung) weren´t sucessfull
  • what is missing is the necessary push for the dismissial



  • the return of the BPP
  • movie about 4 famous americans:
    • Kathleen Cleaver
    • Jamal Joseph
    • Nile Rodgers
    • Bobby Seale
  • they were members of the BPP and a fright for the us- american middle- class
  • "Off the piggs" (like in german: "Weg mit dem Bullenschwein")was one of the often used slogans of them
  • "public enemy" pictures them
  • it is a film about revolution and that what comes after it, when everybody is going home
  • about lifes of four ptotargonists today and their relationship to the BPP

Folgende Referate könnten Dich ebenfalls interessieren:

Die nachfolgenden Dokumente passen thematisch zu dem von Dir aufgerufenen Referat: