Referat Englisch Spezialfrage The internet 1 The history of the internet In 1957, the Russians launched the first artificial satellite, which was called Sputnik. This event flamed up the cold war, because the United States was near hysterics thinking of that metal ball orbiting the globe overhead. But president D. Eisenhower and the U.S. didn t want the Russians to own outer space without a fight. So the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) was initiated within the Department of Defense (DoD) to establish U.S. lead in science and technology applicable to the military. The ARPA focused specially on the development of the at that time fledgling computer technology. In this case the agency realized, that computers needed greater capability to interact with each other. In 1961 the first breakthrough was made by scientists, who made it possible for several people to use the same computer simultaneously. The process, which has been developed, was called time-sharing . However, the innovation was not a huge success, because the expectations were too high. Yet it was not possible for the time-sharing user to perform computing tasks on more than one remote system at a time, and the poor quality of telephone connections would often cause transmission errors. In 1966 a new networking project was initiated. The proposal was to connect all computers in the research community via dial-up telephone lines. At the same time the project became aware of a number of reports published in 1962 by ...
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